Brown, J. D.; Gillespie, B. R.; Gardner, D.;Gansallo, E. A.
Co-location of force and action improves identification of force-displacement features 
IEEE Haptics Symposium, pp. 187–193, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-4673-0809-0. / View Abstract, BibTeX and Links


Haptic display is a promising means to deliver sensory feedback to anamputeefromanupperlimbprosthesisequippedwithelectronic sensors. Haptics, however, describes a diverse set of sensory and perceptual modalities. The question arises: which modality might best serve the purposes of the prosthesis wearer, and which body site should be used? To begin to answer these questions, we have conducted an experiment involving n=14 participants in which reaction force was displayed either to the same hand used to explore a virtual object (co-located condition), or to the opposing hand (non co-located condition). In randomly ordered trials, reaction forces were derived from the commanded motion according to one of three force-displacement relationships, describing a linear spring, a softening spring, and a stiffening spring. All springs shared a common rest length and terminal force. Results indicate a significant difference between the co-located and non co-located force display conditions in terms of identification accuracy and time length. Our findings suggest that those haptic modalities that are capable of coupling action and re-action will provide the most utility to amputees with an upper limb prosthesis.

	title = {Co-location of force and action improves identification of force-displacement features},
author = { Jeremy D. Brown and R. Brent Gillespie and Duane Gardner and Emmanuel a. Gansallo},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.1109/HAPTIC.2012.6183789},
	isbn = {978-1-4673-0809-0},
	year = {2012},
	date = {2012-01-01},
	booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Haptics Symposium},
	pages = {187--193},
	keywords = {},
	pubstate = {published},
	tppubtype = {inproceedings}